Philadelphia Reflections

The musings of a physician who has served the community for over six decades

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...Ratification, Bill of Rights and Other Amendments
The 1787 Constitution lacked a Bill of Rights. Few except Madison himself were opposed to adding one, but many other delegates would have failed election without promising it. Negotiations at the Convention had proved so excitingly innovative that time ran out before the Convention had to adjourn with only a promise of a Bill of Rights, first thing.

Ninth Amendment

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Amendment IX Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. {bottom quote}
The Ninth Amendment

Originally published: Tuesday, July 31, 2012; most-recently modified: Friday, August 09, 2019