Philadelphia Reflections

The musings of a physician who has served the community for over six decades

Related Topics

Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation were written by John Dickinson, modified by others. Officially unratified for five years, the country was ruled under them in Philadelphia, for thirteen. They taught many lessons, which we sometimes forget we had experienced.

Westphalia: Church Politics Adjusts Boundaries, Then Everything Changes
In 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia created the modern nation-state.

Prohibitory Act of the British Parliament -- 1775
This is the British Act which started the Revolutionary War. The two Legislative bodies should have known better than to react in haste, but the British Parliament in London and its opponent the Continental Congress in Philadelphia -- started a Revolutionary War. Apparently Lord North issued a Prohibitory Act and John Adams responded to it, but the real hotheads were Charles Townsend and William Bradford. Everybody involved thought Independence was an improbable outcome.

Signers of the Articles of Confederation

{Samuel Huntinton}
Samuel Huntington
{John Hanson}
John Hanson
{Daniel Carroll}
Daniel Carroll
{John Witherspoon}
John Witherspoon
{Jonathan Bayard} Jonathan Bayard
{William Clingan}
William Clingan
{Joseph Reed}
Joseph Reed
{Henry Laurens}
Henry Laurens
{William Henry}
William Henry
{Thomas Heyward}
Thomas Heyward
{Thomas McKean}
Thomas McKean
{John Dickinson}
John Dickinson
{Nicholas Van Dyke}
Nicholas Van Dyke
{John Hancock}
John Hancock
{Samuel Adams}
Samuel Adams
{Elbridge Gerry}
Elbridge Gerry
{Francis Dana}
Francis Dana
{James Duane}
James Duane
{Francis Lewis}
Francis Lewis
{William Duer}
William Duer
{Gouverneur Morris}
Gouverneur Morris
{William Ellery}
William Ellery
{Henry Merchant}
Henry Marchant
{Richard Henry Lee}
Richard Henry Lee
{John Banister}
John Banister
{John Harvie}
John Harvie
{Francis Lightfoot Lee}
Francis Lightfoot Lee
{Josiah Bartlett}
Josiah Bartlett
{John Penn}
John Penn

Originally published: Tuesday, March 27, 2012; most-recently modified: Wednesday, June 05, 2019


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